Diet of Psalidodon aff. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Teleostei: Characidae) in a neotropical river before reservoir formation


  • José Rafael Soares Fonseca Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Centro de Engenharias e Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Pesqueiros e Engenharia de Pesca – Toledo (PR), Brazil.
  • Carlos Henrique Orsi Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Centro de Engenharias e Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Pesqueiros e Engenharia de Pesca – Toledo (PR), Brazil.
  • Matheus Tenório Baumgartner Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais – Maringá (PR), Brazil.
  • Anderson Luís Maciel Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Centro de Engenharias e Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Pesqueiros e Engenharia de Pesca – Toledo (PR), Brazil.
  • Elaine Antoniassi Luiz Kashiwaqui Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Centro de Engenharias e Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Pesqueiros e Engenharia de Pesca – Toledo (PR), Brazil.
  • Gilmar Baumgartner Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Centro de Engenharias e Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Pesqueiros e Engenharia de Pesca – Toledo (PR), Brazil.



before the construction, feeding, specialist, generalist, opportunistic


The main objective of this study was to identify spatial and seasonal variations on the diet of Psalidodon aff. fasciatus from the Tibagi River (South Brazil) before the construction of the Tibagi Montante hydropower plant. Fish were collected quarterly between October 2017 and July 2019. 536 stomachs containing feeding items and identified to the lowest taxonomic level as possible have been analyzed. Results showed that plants, Hymenoptera, and insect parts in general were the most consumed items. The analysis of feeding strategy showed a diet based on rare items but with individuals varying among specialist, generalist, and opportunistic trends depending on the season. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed diet overlap in both spatial and seasonal terms, which was confirmed by the permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). The indicator value analysis (IndVal) identified 15 items as the most important components of this species’ diet such as superior plants, Hymenoptera and insect parts. Therefore, before the formation of the reservoir, P. aff. fasiatus could be characterized as predominantly herbivore with a strong trend for insectivory. Across seasons, this species had a specialized diet all year, although with more specialized preferences in the spring when the consumption of plants was increased.


Abelha, M.C.F.; Agostinho, A.A.; Goulart, E. 2001. Trophic plasticity in freshwater fishes. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 23(2): 425-434.

Agostinho, A.A.; Gomes, LC.; Pelicice, F.M. 2007. Ecologia e manejo de recursos pesqueiros em reservatórios do Brasil. UEM, Maringá, 501 p.

Agostinho, A.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Santos, N.C.; Ortega, J.C.; Pelicice, F.M. 2016. Fish assemblages in Neotropical reservoirs: colonization patterns, impacts and management. Fisheries Research, 173(Part 1): 26-36.

Amundsen, P.A.; Gabler, H.M.; Staldvik, F.J. 1996. A new approach to graphical analysis of feeding strategy from stomach contents data – modification of the Costello (1990) method. Journal of Fish Biology, 48(4): 607-614.

Anderson, M.J. 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26(1): 32-46.

Anderson, M.J. 2014. Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA). Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online.

Andrian, I.F.; Peretti, D.; Lambrecht, D. 2006. Recursos alimentares explorados por Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) em diferentes bacias hidrográficas. Arquivos do Mudi, 10(1): 21-27.

Antonelli, L.; Foata, J.; Quilichini, Y.; Marchand, B. 2016. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal). Parasitology Research, 115(2): 561-568.

Baumgartner, M.T.; Baumgartner, G.; Gomes, L.C. 2018. Spatial and temporal variations in fish assemblage: testing the zonation concept in small reservoirs. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 78(3): 487-500.

Bennemann, S.T.; Gealh, A.M.; Orsi, M.L.; Souza, L.M.D. 2005. Ocorrência e ecologia trófica de quatro espécies de Astyanax (Characidae) em diferentes rios da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, 95(3): 247-254.

Bicudo, C.E.M.; Bicudo, R.M.T. 1970. Algas de águas continentais brasileiras. Fundação Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento do Ensino de Ciências, 228 p.

Bicudo, C.E.M.; Menezes, M. 2006. Gêneros de algas continentais do Brasil (chave para identificação e descrição). 2ª ed. RiMa, Botânica, São Carlos, 502 p.

Costa, C.; Ide, S.; Simonka, C.E. 2006. Insetos imaturos: metamorfose e identificação. Holos, 249 p.

Costello, M.J. 1990. Predator feeding strategy and prey importance: a new graphical analysis. Journal of Fish Biology, 36(2): 261-263.

Coswosck, M.D.A.; Duboc, L.F. 2015. Ecologia trófica de Astyanax intermedius (Characiformes: Characidae) em um trecho do rio Preto do Sul, bacia do rio São Mateus–ES. Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, 37(2): 165-192.

De França, V. 2002. O rio Tibagi no contexto hidrogeográfico paranaense. A bacia do rio Tibagi. Londrina.

Dufrêne, M.; Legendre, P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs, 67(3): 345-366.[0345:SAAIST]2.0.CO;2

Ferry, L.A.; Caillet, G.M.; MacKinlay, D.; Shearer, K. 1996. Feeding Ecology and Nutrition in Fish. In: Symposium Proceedings, San Francisco State University, 213 p.

Galvis, G.; Mojica, J.I.; Camargo, M. 1997. Peces del Catatumbo. Asociación Cravo Norte, 118 p.

Garcia, J.A.D.; Chini, H.A.S.; Maistro, E.L.; Quagio-Grassiotto, I. 2001. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (CUVIER) (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 18(4): 1057-1064.

Granzotti, R.V.; Miranda, L.E.; Agostinho, A.A.; Gomes, L.C. 2018. Downstream impacts of dams: shifts in benthic invertivorous fish assemblages. Aquatic Sciences, 80(3): 1-14.

Hahn, N.S.; Fugi, R.; Andrian, IF. 2004. Trophic ecology of the fish assemblages. In: Thomaz, S.M.; Agostinho, A.A.; Hahn, N.S. (eds.). The Upper Paraná River and its floodplain: physical aspects, ecology and conservation. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, p. 247-269.

Hellawell, J.M.; Abel, R. 1971. A rapid volumetric method for the analysis of the food of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 3(1): 29-37.

Higuti, J.; Franco, G.M.S. 2001. Identificação de invertebrados para análise de conteúdo estomacais de peixes. UEM, Maringá, 110 p.

Hynes, H.B.N. 1950. The food of fresh-water sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pygosteus pungitius), with a review of methods used in studies of the food of fishes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 19(1): 36-58.

Hyslop, E.J. 1980. Stomach contents analisys – a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology, 17(4): 411-429.

Jorge, M.B.; Vilela, M.J.A.; Suarez, Y.R.; Lima Junior, S.E. 2019. Changes in diet of a neotropical cichlid in response to river damming. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 41(1): e43880.

Kawakami, E.; Vazzoler, G. 1980. Método gráfico e estimativa do índice alimentar aplicado no estudo de alimentação de peixes. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico, 29(2): 205-207.

Kruskal, J.B. 1964. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika, 29: 115-129.

Legendre, P.; Gallagher, E.D. 2001. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia, 129(2): 271-280.

Leite, E.F.; Godoi, D.S.; Jacyntho, L.A.; Maceno, J.F.S.; Amaral Duarte, C.R. 2021. Feeding habits and reproductive biology of Astyanax abramis. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(1): 2582-2597.

Leite, G.F.M.; Silva, F.T.C. 2018. Effects of temporal changes on resource availability in the diet of Astyanax paranae (Pisces, Characidae) in tropical headwater streams. Limnetica, 37(1): 117-128.

Leite, G.F.M.; Silva, F.T.C.; Gonçalves, J.F.J.; Salles, P. 2015. Effects of conservation status of the riparian vegetation on fish assemblage structure in neotropical headwater streams. Hydrobiologia, 762: 223-238.

Matoso, D.A.; Martins, C.; Artoni, R.F.; Galetti Jr., P.M. 2010. Preliminary qualitative analysis on mtDNA in Astyanax fasciatus populations Cuvier, 1819 (Teleostei: Characidae) indicate population distinctiveness. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 53(3): 663-667.

Medri, M.E.; Bianchini, E.; Pimenta, J. Á.; Colli, S.; Müller, C. 2002. Estudos sobre a tolerância ao alagamento em espécies arbóreas nativas da bacia do rio Tibagi. A bacia do Rio Tibagi. Londrina.

Mise, F.T.; Fugi, R.; Pagotto, J.P.A.; Goulart, E. 2013. The coexistence of endemic species of Astyanax (Teleostei: Characidae) is propitiated by ecomorphological and trophic variations. Biota Neotropica, 13(3): 21-28.

Mugnai, R.; Nessimian, J.L.; Baptista, D.F. 2010. Manual de identificação de macroinvertebrados aquáticos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Technical Books, São Paulo, 174 p.

Neves, M.P.; Kratina, P.; Delariva, R.L.; Jones, J.I.; Fialho, C.B. 2021. Seasonal feeding plasticity can facilitate coexistence of dominant omnivores in neotropical streams. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 31(2): 417-432.

Novakowski, G.C.; Hahn, N.S.; Fugi, R. 2007. Alimentação de peixes piscívoros antes e após a formação do reservatório de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 7(2), 149-154.

Pérez, G.R. 1988. Guía para el estudio de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos del Departamento de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, Bogotá, 217 p.

Pini, S.F.; Abelha, M.C.; Kashiwaqui, E.A.; Delariva, R.L.; Makrakis, S.; Makrakis, M.C. 2019. Food resource partitioning among species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in the Lower Iguaçu River and tributaries, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 17(4): 190028.

Podani, J.; Csányi, B. 2010. Detecting indicator species: some extensions of the IndVal measure. Ecological Indicators, 10(6): 1119-1124.

Rautenberg, K.A.; Silveira, E.L.; Vaz-dos-Santos, A.M. 2021. Feeding trends of Psalidodon paranae in an impacted Neotropical basin: a multifactor and integrative approach. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 104(2): 89-105.

Schmitter-Soto, J.J. 2017. A revision of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America, with the description of nine new species. Journal of Natural History, 51(23-24): 1331-1424.

Silva, D.A.; Pessoa, E.K.R.; Costa, S.A.G.L.; Chellappa, N.T.; Chellappa, S. 2012. Ecologia alimentar de Astyanax lacustris (Osteichthyes: Characidae) na Lagoa do Piató, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Biota Amazônia, 2(1): 74-82.

Silva, M.R.; Fugi, R.; Carniatto, N.; Ganassin, M.J.M. 2014. Importance of allochthonous resources in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in streams: a longitudinal approach. Biota Neotropica, 14(3): e20130016.

Silva, Z.; Nascimento, P.E.C.D.; Vitule, J.R.S.; Frehse, F.D.A.; Ferraz, M.S.O.; Mourgués-Schurter, L.R. 2019. Diet and resource sharing by two Pimelodidae species in a Southeastern Brazilian reservoir. Biota Neotropica, 19(3): e20180675.

Silveira, E.L.; Aranha, J.M.; Menezes, M.S.; Vaz-dos-Santos, A.M. 2020. Reproductive dynamics, age and growth of Astyanax aff. fasciatus in a Neotropical basin. Marine and Freshwater Research, 71(6): 670-683.

Teixeira, J.L.A.; Gurgel, H.D.C.B. 2002. Métodos de análise do conteúdo estomacal em peixes e suas aplicações. Arquivos do Mudi, 6(1): 20-25.

Terán, G.E.; Benitez, M.F.; Mirande, J.M. 2020. Opening the Trojan horse: phylogeny of Astyanax, two new genera and resurrection of Psalidodon (Teleostei: Characidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 190(4): 1217-1234.

Wang, S.; Tang, J.P.; Su, L.H.; Fan, J.J.; Chang, H.Y.; Wang, T.T.; Wang, L.; Lin, H.J.; Yang, Y. 2019. Fish feeding groups, food selectivity, and diet shifts associated with environmental factors and prey availability along a large subtropical river, China. Aquatic Sciences, 81(2): 1-18.

Winemiller, K.O. 1990. Spatial and temporal variation in tropical fish trophic networks. Ecological Monographs, 60(3): 331-367.

Wolff, L.L.; Abilhoa, V.; Rios, F.S.A.; Donatti, L. 2009. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae) in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(2): 257-266.

Zanata, A.M.; Camelier, P. 2009. Astyanax vermilion and Astyanax burgerai: new characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) from Northeastern Bahia, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(2): 175-184.

Zavala-Camin, L.A. 1996. Introdução aos estudos sobre alimentação natural em peixes. EDUEM, Maringá, 129 p.






Scientific Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)