• Raniere Garcez Costa SOUSA Fisheries Science Department, Federal University of Rondônia
  • Cidiane Melo OLIVEIRA Fisheries Science Department, Federal University of Rondônia
  • Igor Rechetnicow Alves SANT'ANNA Fisheries Science Department, Federal University of Amazonas
  • Bruce Gavin MARSHALL Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia
  • Carlos Edwar de Carvalho FREITAS Fisheries Science Department, Federal University of Amazonas



acarí­­-bodó, Amazon basin, fisheries, native fish, yield per recruit, Tupinambarana Island


Armoured catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis is an endemic fish from the Amazon basin (Brazil) and currently is the top ten target species in the regional fisheries. A total of 1200 samples were collected monthly from March 2011 to February 2012 with an average length of 28 ± 2.57 cm and average weight of 441.57 ± 103.37 g. The growth stock parameters for this species (Wt = 0.431227 * Lt2.08637; M = 0.93 year-1; F-Estimated = 0.91 year-1; F-10 = 3.02 year-1; A0.95 = 7.31 years; K = 0.41 year-1; Tr = Tc = 1.92 years; Lc = 21.14 cm; L∞= 38.85 cm; W∞ = 869.76 g) and exploitation rate (E-Estimated = 0.50; E-10= 0.80) reveal that its stocks are not being overfished in the study area. The baseline information obtained in this study can help support fisheries management strategies of P. pardalis, especially regarding the potential implementation of a policy to increase landings of individuals larger than 22.3 cm length. However, before making a final decision, it is necessary to carefully examine the available information and evidence aimed at sustainable fishing management and conservation of their stocks, which is of great cultural, social and economic importance for Amazonian peoples.


ANA - Agência Nacional das águas. Disponí­­vel em: <> Acesso em: 13 abr. 2018.

Anderson, M.; Gorley, R.N.; Clarke, R.K. 2008. Permanova + for Primer: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods. PRIMES-E Ltd, Plymouth, 214.

Bailey, J.R.; Val, A.L.; ALMEIDA-Val, V.M.F.; Driedzic, W.R. 1997. Anoxic cardiac performance in Amazonian and north-temperate-zone teleosts. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77(5): 683-689.

Barthem, R.B.; Fabré, N.N. 2004. Biologia e diversidade dos recursos pesqueiros da Amazônia. In Ruffino, M.L. A pesca e os recursos pesqueiros na Amazônia brasileira. Manaus: ProVárzea. p. 17-62.

Boerema, L.K.; Gulland, J.A. 1973. Stock Assessment of the Peruvian Anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and Management of the Fishery. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 30(12): 2226-2235.

Caddy, J.F.; Mahon, R. 1996. Puntos de referência para la ordenación pesquera. Documento Tecnico de Pesca 347. Roma: FAO. 109p.

Campos, C.P; Sousa, R.G.C.; Catarino, M.F.; Costa, G.A.; Freitas, C.E.C. 2015. Population dynamics and stock assessment of Colossoma macropomum caught in the Manacapuru Lake system (Amazon Basin, Brazil). Fisheries Management and Ecology, 22: 400í 406. https://doi: 10.1111/fme.12139

Cerdeira, R.G.P.; Ruffino, M.L.; Isaac, V.J. 1997. Consumo de pescado e outros alimentos pela população ribeirinha do Lago Grande de Monte Alegre, PA - Brasil. Acta Amazônica, 27(3): 213-228.

Clark, W.G. 1991. Ground fish Exploitation Rates Based on Life History Parameters. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48(5): 734-750.

Doria, C.R.C.; Athayde, S.; Marques, E.E.; Lima, M.A.L.; Dutka-Gianelli, J.; Ruffino, M.L.; Kaplan, D.; Freitas, C.E.C.; Isaac, V.N. 2017. The invisibility of fisheries in the process of hydropower development across the Amazon. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 47(4): 453-465. https://doi: 10.1007/s13280-017-0994-7

Fan, J. 2013. On the Levenberg-Marquardt methods for convex constrained nonlinear equations. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 9(1): 227-241. https://doi:10.3934/jimo.2013.9.227

Ferreira, D.E.L.; Peret, A.C.; Coutinho, R. 1998. Seasonal grazing rates and food processing by tropical herbivorous fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 53(SA): 222-235.

Ford, E. 1933. An account of the herring investigations conducted at Plymouth during the years from 1924-1933. Journal of the Marine Biological Association the United Kingdom, 19(1): 305-384.

Freitas, C.E.C.; Siqueira-Souza, F.K. 2009. O uso de peixes como bioindicador ambiental em áreas de várzea da bacia Amazônica. Revista Agrogeoambiental, 1(2): 39-45.

Froese, R. 2004. Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 5(1): 86-91.

Froese, R.; Binohlan, C. 2000. Empirical relationships to estimate asymptotic length, length at first maturity and length at maximum yield per recruit in fishes, with a simple method to evaluate length frequency data. Journal of Fish Biology, 56(4): 758-773.

Garcez, R.C.S.; Freitas, C.E.C. 2008. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 6(2): 249-255.

Garcez, R.C.S.; Souza, L.A.; Frutuoso, M.E.; Freitas, C.E.C. 2017. Seasonal dynamic of Amazonian small-scale fisheries is dictated by the hydrologic pulse. Boletim Instituto da Pesca, 43(2): 207-221. https://doi: 10.20950/1678-2305.2017v43n2p207

Gayanilo Jr, F.C.; Sparre, P.; Pauly, D. 2005. FAO-ICLARM Outils D´évaluation des stocks II (FiSAT II). Version révisée. Guide d´utilisation. Rome: FAO.

Gulland, J.A. 1983. Fish stock assessment: a manual of basic methods. Roma: FAO/Wiley series on Food and Agriculture, 223p.

IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatí­­stica 2017. Estimativas da população residente para os municí­­pios e para as unidades da federação brasileiros com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2017.

Isaac, V.J.; Almeida, M.C.; Giarrizzo, T.; Deus, C.P.; Vale, R.; Klein, G.; Begossi, A. 2015. Food consumption as indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riparian communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 87(4): 2229-2242.

Jumawan, J.C.; Seronay, R.A. 2017. Length-weight relationships of fishes in eight floodplain lakes of Agusan Marsh, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science, 146(1): 95-99.

Junk, W.J.; Soares, M.G.M.; Bayley, P.B. 2007. Freshwater fishes of the Amazon River basin: their biodiversity, fisheries, and habitats. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 10(2): 153-173.

King, M. 1995. Species Evolution: The role of Chromosome change. New York: Cambridge University Press. 322p.

Le Cren, E.D. 1951. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology, 20(2): 201-219.

Lévêque, C.; Oberdorff, T.; Paugy, D.; Stiassny, M.L.J.; Tedesco, P.A. 2008. Global diversity of fish (Pisces) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595(1): 545-567. https://doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9034-0

Lourenço, L.F.H.; Santos, D.C.; Ribeiro, S.C.A.; Almeida, H.; Araujo, E.A.F. 2011. Study of adsorption isotherm and microbiological quality of fish meal type "piracuí­­" of Acari-Bodo (Liposarcus pardalis, Castelnau, 1855). Procedia Food Science, 1: 455-462. https://doi:10.1016/j.profoo.2011.09.070

MAPA - Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. 2016. Disponí­­vel em: <> Acesso em: 13 abr. 2018.

Moreau, J.J. 1987. Bounded Variation in Time. Topics in Non smooth Mechanics, 74p.

Neves, A.M.; Ruffino, M.L. 1998. Aspectos reprodutivos do acarí­­-bodó Liposarcus pardalis (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) (Castelnau, 1855) do Médio Amazonas. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emí­­lio Goeldi, série Zoologia, 14(1): 77-94.

Pauly, D. 1983. Some simple methods for the assessment of tropical fish stocks. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 234. Rome: FAO. 52 p.

Pauly, D. 1998. Beyond our original horizons: the tropicalization of Beverton and Holt. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 8: 307-334.

Reis, R.E.; Albert, J.S.; Di Dario, F.; Mincarone, M.M.; Petry, P.; Rocha, L.A. 2016. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America. Journal of Fish Biology, 89(1): 12-47. https://doi: 10.1111/jfb.13016

Rikhter, V.; Efanov, V. 1976. On one of the approaches to estimation of natural mortality of fish populations. Special Publish, International Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission, 6(8): 1-12.

Samat, A.; Yusoff, F.M.; Arshad, A.; Ghaffar, M.A.; Nor, S.M.; Magalhaes, A.L.B.; Das, S.K. 2016. Reproductive biology of the introduced sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 63(1): 35-41. https://doi:I10.21077/ijf.2016.63.1.44937-05

Sant’Anna, I.R.A.; Doria, C.R.C.; Freitas, C.E.C. 2014. Pre-impoundment stock assessment of two Pimelodidae species caught by small-scale fisheries in the Madeira River (Amazon Basin í  Brazil). Fisheries Management and Ecology, 21(4): 322-329.

Santos, G.M.; Ferreira, E.J.G.; Zuanon, J.A.S. 2006. Peixes comerciais de Manaus. Manaus: Ibama/ProVárzea.

Sarr, S.M.; Kabre, A.T.; Diadhiou, H. 2012. Age et croissance de Mugil cephalus (Linneaus, 1758, Mugilidea) dans l’estuaire du fleuve Sénégal. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 6(5): 2149-2157.

Souza, L.A.; Freitas, C.E.C.; Garcez, R.C.S. 2015. Relação entre guildas de peixes, ambientes e petrechos de pesca Baseado no conhecimento tradicional de pescadores da Amazônia Central. Boletim Instituto da Pesca, 41(3): 633-644.

Sparre, P.; Venema, S.C. 1992. Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment Part 1 - Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 306/1 (Rev.1). Roma: Danida.

Sparre, P.; Venema, S.C. 1997. Introdução a Avaliação de Mananciais de Peixes Tropicais. Parte 1 - Manual. FAO Documento Técnico sobre as Pescarias 306/1 (Rev. 2). Roma: Danida.

STATSOFT, Inc. 2009. Statistica (data analysis software systems), version 9.0. Disponí­­vel em: <> Acesso em: 13 abr. 2018.

Taylor, C.C. 1958. Water temperature and cod growth-rate cod growth and temperature. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 23: 366-370.

Val, A.L.; Almeida-Val, V.M.F. 1995. Fishes of the Amazon and their Environment: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects. Germany: Springer. 224p.

Walford, L.A. 1946. A new graphic method of describing the growth of animals. Biological Bulletin, 90(2): 141-147.

Weber, C. 1992. Révision du genre Pterygoplichthys sensu lato (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae). Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie, 19: 1-36.

Winemiller, K.O. 1989. Patterns of variation in life history among South American fishes in seasonal environments. Oecologia, 81(2): 225-241.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>