• Marcos TAVARES-DIAS Laboratório de Patologia de Organismos Aquáticos, Centro de Aq-­¼icultura da Universidade Estadual Paulista (CAUNESP).
  • Elziane Ferreira da Silva SANDRIM Piscicultura São Geraldo
  • Flávio Ruas de MORAES Laboratório de Patologia de Organismos Aquáticos, Centro de Aq-­¼icultura da Universidade Estadual Paulista (CAUNESP)/Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, FCAV-UNESP
  • Paulo César Falanghe CARNEIRO Laboratório de Patologia de Organismos Aquáticos, Centro de Aq-­¼icultura da Universidade Estadual Paulista (CAUNESP)


“tambaqui”, Colossoma macropomum, stress, hematology


In this study, some physiological responses of "tambaqui" Colossoma macropomum, submitted to capture and handling stress were evaluated. Changes were observed in red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit percentage, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), blood glucose and plasma cortisol. After stress, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit decreased significantly while blood glucose, plasma cortisol, MCV, white blood cell number, lymphocytes and neutrophils numbers increased. MCHC, monocytes and special granulocytic cells numbers (SGC) did not show any change after the disturbance.


AINSWORTH A.J.; DEXIANG, C.; WATERSTRATT, P.R. 1991 Changes in peripheral blood leukocytes percentages
and function of neutrophils in stressed channel catfish. J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 3: 41-47.Physiological responses of Colossoma macropomum

ALDRIN, J.F.; MESSAGER, J.L.; BAUDIN-LAURENCIN, F. 1982 La biochimie clinique en aquaculture. Interet et perspective. Cnexo Actes Colloq., 14:219-326.

BANZATO, D.A. and KRONKA, S.N. 1995 Experimentação agrí­­cola. 3a ed. FUNEP, Jaboticabal, 247p.

BARTON, B.A. and IWAMA, G.K. 1991 Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on
the response and effects of corticosteroids. Ann. Rev.Fish Dis., 1: 3-26.

BARTON, B.A. and ZITZOW, R.E. 1995 Physiological responses of juvenile walleyes to handling stress with recovery in saline water. Prog. Fish-Culturist, 57:267-276.

CARNEIRO, P.C.F. and UURNINATI, E.C. 1998 Alterações metabólicas, hematológicas e osmoregulatórias do
matrinxã Brycon cephalus causadas pelo estresse de transporte. In: AQí­Å“ICULTURA BRASIL’98. Anais... Recife,

CASTAGNOLLI, N. 1992 Piscicultura de água doce. FUNEP,Jaboticabal, 189p.

COLLIER, H.B. 1944 The standardization of blood hemoglobin determinations. Can. Med. Ass. J., 50: 550-552.

DAVIS, E.L. and SCHRECK, C.B. 1997 The energetic response to handling stress in juvenile coho salmo.
Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 126:248-258.

DAVIS K.B. and PARKER, N.C. 1986 Plasma corticosteroid stress response of fourteen species of warmwater fish to
transportation. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 115: 495-499.

ELLSAESSER, C.F. and CLEM, L.W. 1986 Haematological and immunological changes in channel catfish stressed
by handling and transport. J. Fish Biol., 28:511-521.

ELLSAESSER, C.F. and CLEM, L.W. 1987 Cortisol-induced hematologic and immunologic changes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Comp. Bioch. Physiol., 87A(2):405-408.

FINN, J.P. and NIELSON, N.O. 1971 The inflammatory response of the rainbow trout. J. Fish Biol.,3:463-478.

FEVOLDEN, S.E.; REFSTIE, T.; ROED, K.H. 1991 Selection for high and low cortisol stress response in Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 95: 53-65.

GOLDENFARB, P.B.; BOWYER, F.P.; HALL, E.; BROSIOUS, E.1971 Reproducibility in the hematology laboratory:
the microhematocrit determination. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol., 56:35-39.

HARMS, C.A; SULLIVAN, C.V.; HODSON, R.G.; STOSKOPF; M.K. 1996 Clinical pathology and histopathology characteristics of net-stressed striped bass with "red tail”. J.Aquat. Anim. Health, 8:82-86.

JENEY, G.; GALEOTTI, M.; VOLPATTI, D.; JENEY, Z.; ANDERSON, D.P. 1997 Prevention of stress in rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing different doses of glucan. Aquaculture, 154:1-15.

study of physiological indicators of handling stress in the tropical fish Piaractus mesopotamicus (Pacu).Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 22:1019-1022.

KUROSVSKAYA, L.N. and OSADCHAYA, S.A. 1993 The influence of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on underyearling
carp, Cyprinus carpio. J. Ichthyol., 33: 81-92.

MAULE, A.G.; TRIPP, R.A.; KAATTARI, S.L.; SCHRECK, C.B. 1989 Stress alters immune function and disease resistance in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). J. Endocrinol., 120: 135-142.

MAZEAUD, M.M.; MAZEAUD, F.; DONALDSON, E.M. 1977 Primary and secondary effects of stress in fish: Some
new data with a general review. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.,160:201-211.

MARTINS, M.L.; MORAES, F.R.; MORAES , J.R.E.; MALHEIROS, E.B. 2000 Falha na resposta do cortisol estresse por captura e por carragenina em Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae). Acta Scientiarum,22: 545-552.

MONTERO, D.; BLAZER, V.S.; SOCORRO, J.; IZQUIERDO, M.S.; TORT, L. 1999 Dietary and culture influences on macrophage aggregate parameters in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.Aquaculture, 179:523-534.

MOURA, M.A.F.; FARIAS, I.P.; VAL, A.L. 1994 Effects of temperature on leucocytes of Colossoma macropomum and Hoplostermum littorale (Pisces). Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 27: 1589-1598.

NAKANO, T. and TOMLINSON, N. 1967 Catecholamine and carbohydrate concentrations in rainbow trout (Salmo
gairdneri) in relation to physical disturbance. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 24: 1701-1715.

NARNAWARE, Y.K.; BAKER, I.B.; TOMLINSON, M.G. 1994 The effects of various stresses, corticosteroids and adrener-TAVARES-DIAS et al. gic agents on phagocytosis in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Physiol. Bioch., 13: 31-40.

PICKERING, A.D. and POTTINGER, T.G. 1985 Cortisol can increase the susceptibility of brown trout, Salmo trutta
L., to disease without reducing the white blood cell count. J. Fish Biol., 27: 611-619.

PICKERING, A.D. and POTTINGER, T.G. 1987 Crowding causes prolonged leucopenia in salmonid fish, despite interrenal acclimation. J. Fish Biol., 30:701-712.

PICKERING, A.D.; POTTINGER, T.G.; CHRISTIE, P. 1982 Recovery of the trout, Salmo trutta L., from acute handling stress: A time-course study. J. Fish Biol., 24:731-740.

stress on the immune system of the dab, Limanda limanda. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 109C(2):129-139.

REID, S.G. and PERRY, S.F. 1994 Storage and differential release of catecholamines in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata). Physiol. Zool., 67(1):216-237.

ROBERTSON, L.; THOMAS, P.; ARNOLD, C.R. 1988 Plasma cortisol secondary stress responses of cultured red
drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to several transportation procedures. Aquaculture, 68:115-130.

ROSENFELD, G. 1947 Corante pancrômico para hematologia e citologia clí­­nica. Nova combinação dos componentes do May-Grunwald e do Giemsa num só corante de emprego rápido. Mem. Instit. Butantan, 20: 329-334.

TAVARES-DIAS, M. and SANDRIM, E.F.S. 1998 Caracterí­­sticas hematológicas de teleósteos brasileiros. I. Série vermelha e dosagens de cortisol e glicose do plasma sanguí­­neo de espécimes de Colossoma macropomum em condições de cultivo. Acta Scientiarum, 20: 157-160.

TAVARES-DIAS, M.; SANDRIM, E.F.S.; CAMPOS-FILHO, E. 1999 Caracterí­­sticas hematológicas do tambaqui Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Osteichthyes: Characidae) em sistema de monocultivo intensivo. II. Leucócitos.
Revta Bras. Zool., 16(1):175-184, 1999.

THOMAS, S. and PERRY, S.F. 1992 Control and consequences of adrenergic activation of red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange on blood oxygen content and carbon dioxide transport in fish. J. Exp.Zool., 2633:160-175.

TOMASSO, J.R.; SIMCO, B.A.; DAVIS, K.B. 1983 Circulating corticosteroid and leucocyte dynamics in channel catfish during net confinement. Tex. J. Scien., 35:83-88.

VIJAYAN, M.M. and LEATHERLAND, J.F. 1989 Cortisol-induced changes in plasma glucose, protein, and thyroid hormone levels, and liver glycogen content of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum). Can.J. Zool., 67:2746-2750.

VIJAYAN, M.M. and MOON, T.W. 1992 Acute handling stress alters hepatic glycogen metabolism in fooddeprived rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 49:2260-2266.

VIJAYAN, M.M. and MOON, T.W. 1993 The response and the plasma disappearance of corticosteroid and glucose in a marine teleost, the sea raven. Can. J. Zool,72: 379-386.

WENDELAAR BONGA, S.E. 1997 The stress response in fish. Physiological Reviews, 773: 591-625.

WENDT, C.A.G. and SAUNDERS, R.L. 1973 Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in young Atlantic salmon in response to various forms of stress. Spec. Public. Internat. Atlantic Salmon Found.,4:55-82.

Cortisol-induced increase in susceptibility of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, to Vibrio salmonicida, together with effects on the blood cell pattern. Aquaculture, 83: 201-215.

WINTROBE, M.M. 1934 Variations on the size and hemoglobin content of erythrocytes in the blood various
of vertebrates. Fol. Haematol., 51: 32-49.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>