Apparent digestibility coefficients of feedstuff used in tambaqui diets


  • Hellen BUZOLLO
  • Thiago Matias Torres do NASCIMENTO
  • Lidiane Cristina Gonçalves de SANDRE
  • Ligia Maria NEIRA
  • Rosângela Kiyoko JOMORI
  • Dalton José CARNEIRO



Colossoma macropomum, gross energy, ether extract, crude protein


Quality of fish diet can be evaluated by quantifying the ability of fish to digest food. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) in nine protein ingredients and seven energy ingredients most commonly used in commercial diets for tambaqui. In total, 510 tambaqui juveniles were fed test diets containing a reference diet supplemented with an inert digestibility marker (Cr2O3) and each ingredient tested. Digestibility analyses showed that corn gluten had the highest ADCCP (98.09%) and ADCGE (96.91%), whereas alcohol yeast had the lowest ADCCP (63.17%) and ADCGE (46.24%). Protein ingredients were revealed to be excellent sources of lipids (ADCEE > 85.0%), with the exception of wheat gluten (ADCEE: 63.73%). Corn (94.50%) and wheat bran (86.08%) showed the highest ADCCP of all energy ingredients. No significant differences in ADCEE were observed across the energy ingredients tested. Of the energy ingredients tested, corn oil (95.70%), fish oil (93.61%), soybean oil (93.31%) and corn (88.70%) had the highest ADCGE. The use of protein ingredients and energy ingredients with high digestibility coefficients, such as the ones reported, can guide the formulation of top quality diets for tambaqui.


ABIMORAD, E.G.; CARNEIRO, D.J. 2004 Fecal collection methods and determination of crude protein and of gross energy digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs for pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 33(5): 1101-1109.

ABIMORAD, E.G.; SQUASSONI, G.H.; CARNEIRO, D.J. 2008 Apparent digestibility of protein, energy, and amino acids in some selected feed ingredients for pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 14(4): 374-380.

AOAC í  Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2000 Official methodsof analysis (17th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC. p. 1219.

APPER-BOSSARD, E.; FENEUIL, A.; WAGNER, A.; RESPONDEK, F. 2013 Use of vital wheat gluten in aquaculture feeds. Aquatic Biosystems, 9: 21. PMid:24237766.

ARAUJO-LIMA, C.A.R.; GOMES, L.C. 2010 Tambaqui. In: BALDISSEROTO, B; GOMES, L.C. Espécies nativas para piscicultura no Brasil (2. ed.).Santa Maria: MS. p. 175-204.

BONALDO, A.; PARMA, L.; MANDRIOLI, L.; SIRRI, R.; FONTANILLAS, R.; BADIANI, A.; GATTA, P.P. 2011 Increasing dietary plant proteins affects growth performance and ammonia excretion but not digestibility and gut histology in turbot (Psetta maxima) juveniles. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 318(1-2): 101-108. http://

BOSCOLO, W.R.; HAYASHI, C.; MEURER, F. 2002 Apparent digestibility of the energy and nutrients of conventional and alternatives foods for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 31(2): 539-545.

DAY, L.; AUGUSTIN, M.A.; BATEY, I.L.; WRIGLEY, C.W. 2006 Wheatgluten uses and industry needs. Trends in Food Science & Technology,17(2): 82-90.

ENES, P.; PANSERAT, S.; KAUSHIK, S.; OLIVA-TELES, A. 2011 Dietary carbohydrate utilization by European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) juveniles. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19(3): 201-215. 1262.2011.579363.

FAO í  Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. 2014 The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2014. Rome: FAO. 223p.

FAO í  Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. 2016 The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2016. Rome: FAO. 253p.

FORSTER, I. 1999 A note on the method of calculating digestibility coefficients of nutrients provided by single ingredients to feeds of aquatic animals. Aquaculture Nutrition, 5(2): 143-145.

FURUKAWA, A.; TSUKAHARA, H. 1966 On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish feed. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 32(6): 502-506.

GATLIN, D.M.; BARROWS, F.T.; BROWN, P.; DABROWSKI, K.; GAYLORD, T.G.; HARDY, R.W.; HERMAN, E.; HU, G.; KROGDAHL, í­"¦.; NELSON, R.; OVERTURF, K.; RUST, M.; SEALEY, W.; SKONBERG, D.; SOUZA, E.J.; STONE, D.; WILSON, R.; WURTELE, E. 2007 Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquaculture Research, 38(6): 551-579.

GOMES, L.C.; SILVA, C.R. 2009 Impacto f pond management on tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier), production during growth-out phase. Aquaculture Research, 40(7): 825-832.

GUIMARAES, I.G.; MIRANDA, E.C.; ARAUJO, J.G. 2014 Coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of some feedstuffs for Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Animal Feed Science and Technology, 188(1): 150-155.

HAUPTMAN, B.S.; BARROWS, F.T.; BLOCK, S.S.; GAYLORD, T.G; PATERSON, J.A.; RAWLES, S.D.; SEALEY, W.M. 2014 Evaluation of grain distillers dried yeast as a fish meal substitute in practical-type diets of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 432(1): 7-14.

HERNÁNDEZ, M.D.; MARTÍNEZ, F.J.; JOVER, M.; GARCÍA, B. G. 2007 Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by soybean meal in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) diet. Aquaculture (Amsterdam,Netherlands), 263(1-4): 159-167.

HISANO, H.; SAMPAIO, F.G.; BARROS, M.M.; PEZZATO, L.E. 2008 Composição nutricional e digestibilidade aparente da levedura í­­ntegra, da levedura autolisada e da parede celular pela tilápia-do-nilo. Ciência
Animal Brasileira, 9(1): 43-49.

HU, B.; FERRELL, M.; LIM, C.E.; DAVIS, D. 2012 Evaluation of traditional diet and corn gluten feed substituted alternative diet for pond-raised hybrid catfish on production and xanthophyll level. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 354í 355(1): 22-26.

HUYBEN, D.; VIDAKOVIÄ" , A.; LANGELAND, M.; NYMAN, A.; LUND, T.; KIESSLING, A. 2017 Effects of dietary yeast inclusion and acute stress on postprandial plasma free amino acid profiles of dorsal aortacannulated rainbow trout. Aquaculture Nutrition, 00: 1-11.

IBGE í  Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatí­­stica. 2016 Produção da pecuária municipal 2016. Available from:<
pdf>. Access on: 28 de jan. 2018.

MOREIRA, P.O.; ROCHA, J.D.M.; SILVA, T.C.; BITTENCOURT, F.;NEU, D.H.; BOSCOLO, W.R. 2015 Óleo de soja utilizado pré e pósprocessamento de rações para tilápia do nilo. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, Sao Paulo, 41(3): 547-555.

MORO, G.V.; RODRIGUES, A.P.O. 2015 Rações para organismos aquáticos: tipos e formas de processamento. Palmas: Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura.(Documentos 14).

NOSE, T. 1960 On the digestion of food protein by gold-fish (Carassius auratus L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo irideus G.). Bulletin of Freshwater Fisheries Research Laboratory, 10(1): 11-22.

NRC í  NationaL Research Council. 2011 Nutrient requirements of warmwater fishes and shellfishes. Washington: National Academy Press. 376p.

PASTORE, S. C G.; GAIOTTO, J.R.; RIBEIRO, F.A.S.; NUNES, A.J.P. 2013 Formulação de rações e boas práticas de fabricação. In: FRACALOSSI, D.M.; CYRINO, J.E.P. Nutriaqua: nutrição e alimentação de espécies
de interesse para a aquicultura brasileira. Florianópolis: Sociedade Brasileira de Aquicultura Aquática. p. 295-345.

PEZZATO, L.E.; MIRANDA, E.C.; BARROS, M.M.; PINTO, L.G.Q.; FURUYA, W.M.; PEZZATO, A.C. 2002 Apparent digestibility of feedstuffs by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 31(4): 1595-1604.

PIEDECAUSA, M.A.; MAZÓN, M.J.; GARCÍA GARCÍA, B.; HERNÁNDEZ, M.D. 2007 Effects of total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in the diets of sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 263(1-4): 211-219.

PRATOOMYOT, J.; BENDIKSEN, E.í­"¦.; BELL, J.G.; TOCHER, D.R. 2010 Effects of increasing replacement of dietary fishmeal with plant protein sources on growth performance and body lipid composition of Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 305(1-4): 124-132.

S.L.T.; EUCLIDES, R.F. 2011 Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suí­­nos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Viçosa: Universidade Federal de Viçosa. 252p.

SILVA, J.A.M.; PEREIRA FILHO, M.; OLIVEIRA-PEREIRA, M.I. 2003 Frutos e Sementes Consumidos pelo Tambaqui, Colossoma macrompum (Cuvier, 1818) Incorporados em Rações. Digestibilidade e Velocidade de Trí­¢nsito pelo Trato Gastrointestinal. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 32(6): 1815-1824.

SILVA, J.A.M.; PEREIRA-FILHO, M.; CAVERO, B.A.S.; OLIVEIRAPEREIRA, M.I. 2007 Digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e energia de ração suplementada com enzimas digestivas exógenas para juvenis de tambaqui (Colosssoma macropomum) Cuvier, 1818). Acta Amazonica, 37(1): 157-164.



Most read articles by the same author(s)