Histopathological changes in Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles used as biomarkers of pesticide poisoning


  • Adriana Sacioto Marcantonio Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – Pindamonhangaba (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2897-577X
  • Fernanda Menezes França Fisheries Institute, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – São Paulo (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6097-5366
  • Diego Sales Santos Fisheries Institute, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – São Paulo (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4344-2111
  • Ana Mara Cristina Rebello Pinto Fonseca Martins Biological Institute, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – São Paulo (SP), Brasil . https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4061-0298
  • Márcio Hipólito Biological Institute, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – São Paulo (SP), Brasil . https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1932-8829
  • Sérgio Henrique Canello Schalch Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – Pindamonhangaba (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7960-6213
  • Cristina Viriato Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – Botucatu (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5208-9639
  • Cláudia Maris Ferreira Fisheries Institute, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento – São Paulo (SP), Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9549-4178




Amphibian, Biomarker, Ecotoxicology, Lithobates catesbeianus


The use of biological indicators has increased in recent years with the aim of investigating environmental pollution in aquatic environments that are vulnerable to the constant use of pesticides. Some biomarkers can help assess the health status, indicating physical, metabolic, and behavioral changes under acute and sublethal poisoning. The mixture of the active ingredients cyproconazole and picoxystrobin is a widely used fungicide for the control of pests in cotton, rice, coffee, sugarcane, corn, soybean, and wheat. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of possible histopathological lesions in the liver and kidneys of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) caused by a fungicide commercial formula composed of picoxystrobin and cyproconazole. The animals were subjected to different concentrations of the fungicide to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50-96h = 0.05 mg L-1), that is, the lethal dose for 50% of the animals in 96 h. After determining the value of LC50-96h, the animals were subjected to three sublethal concentrations (LC50-96h/2, LC50-96h/10, and LC50-96h/100). Through histological biomarkers, it was verified that this fungicide changed the morphology of the animals' kidney and liver tissues in a chronic way, impairing the functioning of organs that are essential for their survival and metamorphosis, which can result in an imbalance in the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems.


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