Growth of juvenile fat snook Centropomus parallelus in cages at three stocking densities


  • Mônica Yumi Tsuzuki Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aq-­¼icultura / Laboratório de Piscicultura Marinha, Departamento de Aq-­¼icultura, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Federal University of Santa Catarina)
  • Rafael Ferreira Cardoso Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aq-­¼icultura
  • Vinícius Ronzani Cerqueira Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aq-­¼icultura


snook, Centropomus parallelus, growth, stocking density, cages


Survival and growth parameters were evaluated in juvenile fat snook Centropomus parallelus held at different stocking densities in floating cages. Juveniles of 156 Days After Hatching (DAH) (5.7 ± 1.27 g wet weight; 8.5 ± 0.69 cm total length: mean ± SD) stocked at 50, 100 and 200 fish/m3 in 1 m3 cages, presented no difference in survival and growth as wet weight, total and standard length, specific growth rate, and coefficient of variation for weight and total length, after 59 days of experiment (P> 0.05). Specific growth rate and food conversion ratio were near 0.9%/day and 1.6, respectively, at the densities tested (P>0.05). Feeding behavior of fat snook was directly related to light condition as higher feed consumption occurred at hours of lower sunlight exposure on the fish cages. From the results obtained in the present study, the use of stocking densities up to 200 fish/m3 did not affect survival, growth performance and food conversion ratio of juveniles of fat snook. However, final biomass and production per area were significantly different, being higher at 200 fish/m3, density considered, among the stocking densities tested, the most adequate for growing fat snook at the juvenile phase in cages.


ALVAREZ-LAJONCHí­Ë†RE, L.S. 2001 Fat snook breakthrough in Brazil. World Aquaculture, Baton Rouge, 31: 23-25.

ALVAREZ-LAJONCHí­Ë†RE, L.S. 2004 Cultivo de robalos: potencialidades e resultados. Panorama da Aqüicultura, Botafogo, 14: 15-21.

ALVAREZ-LAJONCHí­Ë†RE, L.S.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; REIS, M.A. 2002a Desarrollo embrionario y primeros estadios larvales del robalo gordo, Centropomus parallelus Poey (Pisces, Centropomidae)con interés para su cultivo. Hidrobiológica, México,
12: 89-99.

ALVAREZ-LAJONCHí­Ë†RE, L.S.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; SILVA, I.D.; ARAí­Å¡JO, J.; REIS, M.A. 2002b Mass production of juveniles of the fat snook Centropomus parallelus in Brazil. J.World Aquac. Soc., Baton Rouge, 33: 506-516.

ANDREW, J.E.; HOLM, J.; KADRI, S.; HUNTINGFORD,F.A. 2004 The effect of competition on the feeding efficiency and feed handling behaviour in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) held in tanks.Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 232: 317í 331

BARCELLOS, L.J.G.; KREUTZ, L.C.; QUEVEDO,R.M.; FIOREZE, I.; CERICATO, L.; SOSO, A.B.; FAGUNDES, M.; CONRAD, J.; BALDISSERA, R.K.; BRUSCHI, A.; RITTER, F. 2004 Nursery rearing of jundia´, Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) in cages: cage type, stocking density and stress response to confinement. Aquaculture,Amsterdam, 232: 383í 394.

BERESTINAS, A.C. 2006 Efeito de diferentes dietas e frequências alimentares no crescimento de juvenis de robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860. Florianópolis. 40p. (Masters Dissertation, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFSC).

BEVERIDGE, M.C.M. 1996 Cage aquaculture. 2nd ed.Oxford: Fishing News. 346p.

BRETT, J.R. 1979 Environmental factors and growth. In: HOAR, W.S.; RANDALL, D.J.; BRETT, J.R. Fish Physiology, Vol. 8. New York: Academic Press. p.599-675.

BROWN, G.E.; BROWN, J.A.; SRIVASTAVA, R.K. 1992 The effect of stocking density on the behaviour of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). J. Fish Biol.,London, 41: 955í 963.

CAVERO, B.A.S.; PEREIRA-FILHO, M.; ROUBACH, R.; ITUASSí­Å¡, D.R.; GANDRA, A.L.; CRESCí­Å NCIO, R. 2003 Efeito da densidade de estocagem na homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu em ambiente confinado. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasí­­lia, 38: 103-107.

CERQUEIRA, V.R. and TSUZUKI, M.Y. 2003 Marine 2003 Marine fish culture- Lessons and future directions. In: WORLD AQUACULTURE 2003, THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, 2003, Salvador, BA, 19-23/mai/2003. Book of abstracts... Baton Rouge: World Aquaculture Society. p.174.

CERQUEIRA, V.R.; MACCHIAVELLO, J.A.G.; BRUGEER, A.M. 1995 Produção de alevinos de robalo, Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860, através de larvicultura intensiva em laboratório. In: ENCONTRO NACIONAL DE AQí­Å“ICULTURA, Peruí­­be, São Paulo, 1992. Anais...... São Paulo: Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo.p. 191-197.

ECKELBARGER, K.J.; SCALAN, R.; NICOL, A.C. 1980 The outer retina and tapetum lucidum of the snook Centropomus undecimalis (Teleostei). Can.J. Zool.,Toronto, 58: 1042-1051.

EWING, R.D.; SHEAHAN, J.E.; LEWIS, M.A.; PALMISANO, A.N. 1998 Effects of rearing
density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon. Progr.Fish-Cult., Bethesda, 60,167í 178.

FERRAZ, E. de M.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; ALVAREZLAJONCHí­Ë†RE, L.S. 2002 Indução da desova do robalo-peva, Centropomus parallelus, através de injeção e implante de LHRHa. B. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 28:125-133.

FRASER, T.H. 1978 Centropomidae. In: FISHER, W.FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. V.5. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31).Roma: FAO.

KENTOURI, M. 2002 Survival, growth and feeding in early life stages of European sea
bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) intensively cultured under different stocking densities. Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 205: 89í  102.

IRWIN, S.; O’HALLORAN, J.; FITZGERALD, R.D. 1999 Stocking density, growth and growth variation in juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Rafinesque).Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 178: 77-88.

JOBLING, M. 1985 Physiological and social constraints on growth of fish with special reference to arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus L. Aquaculture, Amsterdam,44: 83í 90.

KAISER, H.; WEYL, O.; HECHT, T. 1995 The effect of stocking density on growth, survival and agonistic behaviour of African catfish. Aquac. Int.,Dordrecht, 3: 217í  225.

KATAVIC, I.; JUG-DUJAKOVIC, J.; GLAMUZINA, B. 1989 Cannibalism as a factor affecting the survival of intensively cultured sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax) fingerlings. Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 77:135í 143.

J.E. 2004 Swimming behaviour as an indicator of low growth rate and impaired welfare in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) reared at three stocking densities. Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 230:137í 151.

MACIEL, J.C. 2006 Efeito da salinidade na sobrevivência e no crescimento de juvenis de robalo-peva (Centropomus parallelus). Florianópolis. 41p.(Masters Dissertation. Centro de Ciências Agrárias,UFSC).

MOORE, A. and PRANGE, M. 1994 Influence of stocking densities on walley fry viability in experimental and production tanks. Progr.FishCult., Besthesda, 56, 194í  201.

P A P O U T S O G L O U , S . E . ; P A R A S K E V A -PAPOUTSOGLOU, E.; ALEXIS, M.N. 1987 Effect of density on growth rate and production of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich.) over a full rearing period. Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 66: 9 í 17.

PAPOUTSOGLOU, S.E.; TZIHA, G.; VRETTOS, X.; ATHANASIOU, A. 1998 Effects of stoking density on behavior and growth rate of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles reared in a closed circulated system. Aquac. Eng., Barking,18: 135í 144.

Paspatis, M.; BOUJARD, T.; MARAGOUDAKI, D.; BLANCHARD, G.; KENTOURI, M. 2003 Do stocking density and feed reward level affect growth and feeding of self-fed juvenile European sea bass? Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 216: 103í  113

ROWLAND, S.J.; GEOFF, L.A.; HOLLIS, M.; PONTIFEX,T. 2004 Production of silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) fingerlings at three stocking densities in cages and tanks Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 22: 193í 202.

SAILLANT, E.; FOSTIER, A.; HAFFRAY, P.; MENU, B.; LAUREAU, S.; THIMONIER, J.; CHATAIN,B. 2003 Effects of rearing density, size grading and parental factors on sex ratios of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in intensive aquaculture. Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 221:183í 206.

SANCHEZ, A.; GÓMES, L.M.; GARCIA, T.; SUÁREZ, C.R.; ROZAS, C.; GAXIOLA, G. 2002 Maturation and spawning of common snook: First experiences in Southeast México. World Aquac., Baton Rouge,33: 62-65.

SCHRECK, C.B. 1981 Stress and compensation in teleostean fishes; response to social and physical factors. In: PICKERING, A.D. Stress and Fish,London: Academic Press. p. 295-321.

TEMPLE, S.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; BROWN, J.A. 2004 The effects of lowering prey density on the growth, survival and foraging behaviour of larval fat snook (Centropomus parallelus poey 1860). Aquaculture, Amsterdam, 233: 205í 217.

TSUZUKI, M.Y.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; TELLES, A.;DONEDA, S. 2007 Salinity tolerance of laboratory reared juveniles of the fat snook Centropomus paralleus. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, São Paulo, 55: 1-5.

TUCKER, J.W., JR. 2000 Marine Fish Culture. Second Printing. Massachussetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 750 p.

YAMAGISHI, H.T.; MARUYAMA, T.; MASHIKO, K. 1974 Social relations in a small population of Odontobutis obscuris (Temmack et Schlegel) as related to individual growth and food intake.Oecologia, Heidelberg, 17: 187í 202.

YI,Y.; LIN, C.K.; DIANA, J.S. 1996 Influence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stocking density in cages on their growth and yield in cages and in ponds containing the cages. Aquaculture,Amsterdam, 146: 205í  215.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>